Skin pigmentation problems arise due to the uneven distribution of melanin in the skin.

These factors can be genetic or they can be triggered by external and more controllable circumstances.

Melanin is deposited on the skin by melanocytes. These cells have long arm-like extensions called dendrites, which deposit melanin in melanosomes for transport through the skin. Melanocyte health is key to almost all pigmentation problems.



Pigmentation problems can be divided into hypopigmentation (light patches) and hyperpigmentation (dark patches). The patches may be large (for example, vitiligo) or they may be barely noticeable. There are over 70 different pigmentation disorders and these cannot be covered here, but there are some common causes.

Possible causes

These are some of the factors that may be contributing to alterations in the normal deposition of pigments in the skin

UV radiation is the main aggravating factor in pigmentation – all cases will be affected by excessive UV exposure
Vitamin D deficiency is involved in a large percentage of pigmentation cases. Vitamin D levels are dangerously low in a large proportion of the population due to indoor lifestyles. Some exposure to the sun is essential for your health and the health of your skin. This may seem counterintuitive, but 15 minutes of gentle sun exposure to a large part of your body a few times a week is healthy. Sunburn should definitely be avoided.
The most common initial triggers are:
Intense sunburn – an acute sunburn incident can have long-term effects, but regular mild exposure is beneficial to the skin
Reaction to chemicals
Hormonal changes
People who carry the red head gene are more susceptible to damage induced by UV radiation [/ dt_sc_tab]
Lifestyle recommendations

Here are some suggestions for lifestyle changes that should have a balancing effect on your skin.

Continuous low-level sun exposure (15min per day), with affected areas covered
Oral vitamin D supplements, if levels are low
Essential fatty acid intake – either 15 g per day of flax seed oil or 400 mg of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA)
Vitamin C supplement (400mg) on ​​a daily basis
Reassess your diet – switch to a diet high in fiber, low in sugar and fresh foods
Check for photosensitizing ingredients in makeup, skincare, and haircare products.

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